Greater Atlanta Area Landscapers
GREATER ATLANTA AREA LANDSCAPERS
GREATER ATLANTA AREA LANDSCAPERS
GREATER ATLANTA AREA - Southern Signature Discount Landscaping is currently running a "Spring Break Special" offering to homeowners and commercial properties alike, one month free landscape maintenance with maintenace agreement signed during Spring Break!
"We are a small, local full-service landscaping company who's offering our neighbors throughout Greater Atlanta extraordinary discounts" states the company's owner Blanchard Benson. "We accomplish two important things in our company strategy. We save everyone money on all their landscaping needs, and by doing so - we continually expand our workforce with American citizens who need and enjoy the work."
Mr. Benson continues, "Some companies justify their hiring of illegal workers by claiming that they're the only ones willing to do the work - when we all know that they're simply being greedy and paying them much, much less.
GREATER ATLANTA AREA Landscapers
GREATER ATLANTA AREA - According to readers of Gwinnett Daily, the "Go To" landscapers for landscape irrigation, drainage, erosion control and grading for both commercial and residential properties is long time local favorites Southern Signature Landscaping. Having developed for themselves a longstanding reputation for affordability, reliability and outstanding professionalism.
Much of the positive feedback we received came from property management companies of all sizes throughout the Greater Atlanta area. Low prices has been the focus of much of the positive feedback which makes sense as much, if not most business is won these days by having the lowest prices and bidding the lowest - especially in the economy we've all struggled through over the last few years.
Despite a tough economy, the hard working professionals of locally owned and operated Southern Signature have managed to keep themselves extremely busy doing what they love most including medium to high end elegant designs, creative plantings, decorative unique stone walls, custom irrigation systems along with all the rest of the full line of full service landscape design and construction services.
Irrigation and Erosion Control System Design, Installation, Maintenance and Repair is just one of the specialized services offered by Southern Signature Landscaping. Establishing and maintaining the correct water control on any property is vital for many reasons other than aesthetics. This includes retaining walls, drainage systems and effective selection, installation and maintenance of soil and plants.
Rounding up their full line of landscaping services are lawn mowing, seasonal clean ups, fertilizing, shrub and hedge cutting and trimming, tree, branch and leaf removal, lawn installation and aeration, mulching, weeding and also stump grinding.
Whether they're working on large commercial lots or small residential properties, Southern Signature Landscape Contacting has become Greater Atlanta's favorite low cost, high value landscaping contractors.
They're implying that Americans are too lazy to work or that our work is somehow deficient. Every one of our employees love the work and make ends meet in doing so. Plus, we have many more Americans that need the work that would love to work with us. We stay in touch with them and promise to do everything we can to get them on-board as soon as possible."
"One way to get on our workforce faster," we tell them, "is by asking everyone they can if they are currently using a landscaping service - and what ever the response is - to ask them if they'd be interested in getting a free quote from Atlanta's ONLY discount landscaping service. If a potential employee brings in a number of new accounts - they've got a job! That is, as long as they're here legally."
According to Mr. Benson, this particular discount has a Limited Availability So Call Them Today at (678) 707-2805!<-->
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Southern Signature Landscape Construction Alpharetta GeorgiaLandscape construction in Alpharetta, Georgia is affordable, reliable and professional with Southern Signature Landscape Construction. Southern Signature has an outstanding reputation in Alpharetta and surrounding North Fulton and Forsyth counties among residential and commercial property owners and managers as a company committed to high quality, low price landscape construction services.
Southern Signature has had the opportunity to provide landscape construction services for some of the finest residential homes and commercial properties in Alpharetta, Georgia. Southern Signature Landscape Construction has provided landscape construction in Alpharetta, Georgia and surrounding cities since 1992. It is locally owned and operated.
At Southern Signature, we strive to consistently improve our landscape construction service to exceed the expectations of our clients. We want to be your landscape construction company of choice.
We specialize in elegant designs, creative plantings, natural stone walls, luxurious lawns, and customized irrigation systems. We are a full-service landscape construction company, which means we can take your project from conception through completion with beautiful results.
The proper design and installation of landscaping can significantly increase property value, whether residential or commercial. It is very important as a homeowner, business owner, or property manager
to hire a quality landscaping firm. Your property is the most valuable asset you own, so trust it to the best.
Irrigation & Erosion Control
Irrigation Installation & Repair
We know that proper irrigation is critical for healthy plant growth. The right irrigation for the right landscaping is our focus at Southern Signature. It is essential that your irrigation system is customized to properly gauge the amount and frequency of water your property needs.
Southern Signature is a certified Hunter Industries Contractor. We consider Hunter one of the premier manufacturers of quality irrigation systems and supplies. These systems can work well on residential properties, golf courses, sports fields or other commercial properties.
In addition to installing irrigation into landscaping, it is important to make sure that water is not being wasted on areas where it is not needed. We take the time to suggest the best irrigation system for the property.
We have experience with drip irrigation installation as well as sprinkler system irrigation. Both types of irrigation systems have advantages and disadvantages, but we enjoy working with each clients individual need in
order to ensure they get the best possible lawn sprinkler system for their individual needs.
As a Hunter-certified sprinkler system installation company, we are equipped
to meet the various challenges associated with all types of sprinkler installation installation.
Erosion Control System Installation
Southern Signature can address your landscape erosion problems and recommend an aesthetically coherent solution for erosion control. We have experience in retaining wall installation, drainage system installation, the use of select plantings to control erosion, water ponding issues, and other erosion control systems which maintain drainage with minimum maintenance.
Retaining walls install is an effective way to control erosion and increase the square yardage of plantable space. We have experience installing a wide variety of retaining wall systems with a variety of materials including natural stone retaining walls. Concrete retaining walls are a cost effective method that can be installed by our retaining wall install company.
Our retaining wall installers go the extra mile to ensure that the drainage behind the wall functions properly in order to redirect the water flow.
We know you have a choice when it comes to selecting retaining wall system installation companies. Our professional retaining wall installers go the extra mile to make sure the job gets done properly so that you can go back to enjoying your landscape.
Please Note: We only service large properties with our landscaping services.
Our mission is to better the lives of our clients and friends by creating and maintaining beautiful landscapes that both enhance the value of their property and help to preserve the natural beauty of the land.
To maintain your beautiful landscapes, we use top notch landscaping equipment and experienced horticultural techniques that are customizable to your tastes. For instance, we can use native plants in your landscape to attract butterflies and hummingbirds to your property.
Whether it's a large commercial property or a small residential yard, we can handle all your landscaping maintenance needs.
Shrub and Hedge Trimming
Leaf Raking and Removal
Shrub and Flower Planting
Tree Trimming or Removal
Grading & Excavating
Southern Signature can handle all aspects of grading and excavation. By using the versatile Toro Dingo, complicated grading work can be made simple and reduce the length of your project. We have the equipment to complete your project from start to finish, regardless of the type or size of the job.
Our grading services include both the removal, and the deposit of dirt. Our services range from residential projects like clearing a lot, and building a pad for a house to sit on, to commercial clearing and grading.
Improper grading can result in serious problems. For example, newly exposed top soil can quickly erode due to precipitation, and end up in a neighbors yard or in the street. Our professional grading services ensure that the grading is done right the first time.
We provide grading services in order to back fill foundations. This service helps to ensure the foundation is able to support the house. We can also install foundation drainage systems to keep water out of basements and crawl spaces where it doesn't belong.
Our grading services take the legwork out of landscape paver installation. After grading, pavers are easily installed for a professional finished result. In addition, we can perform grading services to include steps into a hillside or other landscape feature. We can perform step install services with a variety of building materials including natural stone steps, stepping stones, and wooden step installation.
We can help plan out, grade, and install a new driveway four your house. In addition to new driveway installation, we can repair existing driveways and help to widen existing driveways.
Our grading service porfolio would not be complete without offering mucking out services, and filling sediment basins. These services help
to ensure proper drainage.
ATLANTA - Trees, turfgrasses, shrubs, flowers and vines make up the majority of plant types on your grounds. Common aspects of these plants are that they are all highly evolved and that they have similar characteristics of growth and development. Most notably, they are all vascular seed plants, they all conduct photosynthesis, and they all derive nutrients and water from their surroundings.
All seed plants have flowers that are made up of reproductive structures (stamens and pistils) and non-reproductive structures (petals and sepals). Flowers bear the seed that contains the embryo that can develop into a new plant.Three vegetative organs—the root, stem and leaf—are easily recognized. These organs are responsible for extracting
water and nutrients from the soil and transporting them through a plant, providing plant structure and anchorage, and conducting photosynthesis. Fundamental to an understanding of plant anatomy and function is an understanding of the interrelationship and interdependence of plant parts. Seed plants start as rudimentary embryos and develop roots, leaves and flowers initially in that order. Each plant part develops from undifferentiated cells and becomes a more distinct organ. Consequently, the separation of the plant into discrete,
defined organs is only approximate. You won’t find a line dividing leaves from stems or roots from stems, but you will find a gradual change in cell structure and organization where two organs join.
Plants are made up of many individual basic units called cells. Cells are the smallest biological unit having characteristics of life. They have the ability to extract substances from their environment and continually adapt to their environment; and they have a unique chemical composition, structure, metabolism, growth, reproduction
and organization. Although plant cells differ depending on their function, you can visualize a generalized, undifferentiated, unspecialized plant cell. On the outside of the cell is the primary cell wall, which encloses the cytoplasm in which you find deposits called inclusions (oil and fat droplets, spherosomes, protein bodies, starch grains and crystals) and metabolic bodies called organelles (nucleus, plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes). The cytoplasm is a semifluid substance that is pressed against the cell wall by a central vacuole. The vacuole is filled with a watery solution of dissolved inorganic and organic molecules, as well as some insoluble material.
The plasma membrane separates the cytoplasm from the primary cell wall. Another cell membrane, the tonoplast, envelopes the vacuole and separates it from the cytoplasm.
The last generalized plant-cell feature is the plasmodesmata, which are strands that extend through cell walls and connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells.The organelles in the cytoplasm have distinct functions. Chloroplasts are the bodies in which photosynthesis takes place. The nucleus contains all the genetic material needed for cell reproduction. Respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
A seed plant is made up of many individual cells, which are cemented together. You will find several different types of cells in plants, and when you group them together as a distinct functional and structural unit, you call them tissue. The major tissues of vascular plants are the dermal, vascular and fundamental (ground) tissues. The dermal tissues (epidermis and periderm) make up the protective structures of a plant. Vascular tissues are a plant’s conducting tissues. Generalized plant cell showing the complexity of many subcellular bodies surrounded by membranes. Membranes divide the cell into compartments and subcellular bodies. A cell must maintain the integrity of these membranes if it is to survive and function.Peroxisomes Chloroplasts Nucleus Plasma membrane Cell wall MitochondriaVacuoleTonoplast Parenchyma cell. Cell types.Collenchyma cellsSclerenchyma cell Vascular tissues include the xylem (water conducting) and phloem (food conducting) tissues. Fundamental or ground tissues make up the basic substance of plants and include three distinct types: parenchyma, col-lenchyma and sclerenchyma . Parenchyma cells are living and capable of growth and division. They are responsible for photosynthesis, wound healing, storage and new growth. Collenchyma cells also are living and capable of producing new growth but consist of thick-walled cells and mainly serve as supporting tissue in leaf veins and stems. Sclerenchyma are thick-walled cells that may or may not be living at maturity. Sclerenchyma function
in a structural role and are made up of fibers (slender elongated cells) and sclereids (cells that vary in form from branched to elongated to relatively concentric).
GROWTH AND GROWING POINTS
Growth is defined as the increase in size by cell division or cell enlargement. This increase in size results from the plant taking up air, water and nutrients and incorporating
them into its structure. Light energy is the driving force behind growth. As mentioned above, parenchyma and collenchyma cells are living and capable of dividing to produce new tissue. Tissue that is actively dividing to produce new tissue is called a meristem. Meristems are actually the growing points on a plant Buds on branches of trees or the apical meristem on the top of turfgrass crowns are examples of growing points. Growing points give rise to new leaves, flowers, branches and roots. Keeping these growing points alive and active is the key to growing plants.
Roots are responsible for extracting moisture and nutrients from the soil and anchoring the plant in the soil . Roots originate from the growing embryo and are the first structure to emerge from the seed during germination.
This first root developing from the embryo is called the primary root, or taproot, and all other roots are called adventitious roots—roots arising from any organ other than the embryo. Roots consist of a growing point at the tip, which is protected by a root cap; the epidermis on the outside of the root; the cortex, which makes up the flesh of the root; root hairs, which absorb moisture and minerals; and the vascular cylinder, which includes the xylem, phloem, cambium and pericycle. Roots add new growth via the growing points at their tips. Roots of most woody species primarily are concentrated in the top 3 feet of soil and can spread two or three times the diameter of the spread of branches, also referred to as the drip line of a tree. But surprisingly, the most active portion of a woody-plant root system is about 6 inches deep and only reaches out to the drip line of the tree. By contrast, the most active zone of grass-root water absorption is only about 1 inch deep.Root systems are broadly divided into either fibrous-root or tap-root systems. Fibrous roots are multibranched and brushlike and are typical of mature grasses and certain trees and shrubs. Taproot systems consist of one main root that grows deep in the soil. Under dry conditions, plants with tap roots are able to extract water from deep in the soil. However, tap-rooted plants are more difficult to transplant because they lack the extensive branching close to the soil surface that fibrous-root systems have. This branching tends to hold the root ball together and produce more small roots for extracting moisture from the soil.
Stems are the connecting structures between the leaves and roots. It is through the stem that water and nutrients are transported to the leaves from the roots, and carbohydrates are conducted from the leaves throughout the plant. Stems consist of nodes separated by internodes with buds developing at the nodes. Buds can give rise to leaves, flowers and lateral stems. A shoot is a general term Axillary budDormant budPeridermRoot hairsApical meristem of main shootApical meristemof axillary shootStem withyoung peridermStem withscaly barkTaproot withperidermLateralroot Root capenclosing root apical meristemFigure 3. This illustration shows growing points of a young perennial dicot.Root hairs1 mmCasparian stripCell elongationzoneApical meristemRoot capRegion of cell differentiation1 mmEndodermisCortexEpidermisVascular tissuePericyclePhloemCambiumXylemCortexEpidermisEndodermisRoot hairsCasparian stripFigure 4. Illustration of a root longitudinal section and cross section.
The crown consists of a series of nodes with unelon-gated internodes. The crown is the key to survival of turfgrasses.
Leaves grow from the crown and envelope the growing point. You can cut the leaves off turfgrass plants or injure them, but the plants will live as long as the crowns stay alive.At certain times of the year, turfgrasses produce a flowering culm. A culm originates from the top of the crown, consists of nodes and internodes, and terminates with a flower or florets. Alternately appearing on either side of the crown is a series of axillary buds that give rise to lateral stems, such as tillers, rhizomes and stolons. Lateral stems are elongated stems with nodes and elongated internodes. When the lateral stem grows up within the leaf that lies under the node, it is called a tiller. All grasses produce tillers that generally do not spread far from the mother plant. Some grasses vegetatively spread by tillering alone, and these are called bunch grasses. Perennial ryegrass is an example of a bunch grass. When a lateral stem grows horizontally through the leaf that lies below on the crown, it is called a rhizome or stolon. Rhizomes (see Figure 7, below left) grow horizontally under the ground, may branch or root at nodes and produce a new plant at their tip(s). Stolons are similar to rhizomes but grow on top of the soil. Examples of rhizomatous grasses are Kentucky bluegrass and creeping red fescue. Rough bluegrass and bentgrass are stoloniferous grasses. Some grasses, such as zoysiagrass and bermudagrass, spread by rhizomes, stolons and tillers. It’s important to reinforce the fact that both rhizomatous and stoloniferous grasses also produce tillers, but bunch grasses vegetatively spread only by tillering.
Because the leaf is the chief site of photosynthesis, it is critical that you understand its structure before going on to learn about photosynthesis. The major tissues of a leaf are epidermis, mesophyll and vascular bundles (see The epidermis is like the skin on a leaf. It is a single layer of cells and is covered with a cuticle—a wax-like layer that seals the leaf from movement of gases and water into and out of the leaf. One peculiar structure of the epidermis is the stomate—the pore through which water and gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, flow into and out of the leaf. The unique geometry of guard cells on either side of the stomate allows them to open and close the stomate in response to fluctuations in their turgor pressure. Stomates generally are open during the day and close at night or when moisture stress occurs. When stomates are open, water can leave the plant in the form of vapor, thus cooling the plant. This water vapor loss is called transpiration. In grasses, leaves are composed of two parts—the blade BladeSheathGrowing pointPrimordial leavesAxillary budAdventitious root#RootsCrownYoung leafThird young leafNext youngest leafPrimary rootYoungest leafInflorescenceCollarFlowering culmFigure 5. This generalized grass exhibits both stoloniferous and rhizomatous growth. Note that it also produces tillers like all grasses. A flowering culm extends from its crown.AuricleLiguleLeaf bladeTillerLeaf sheathStolonRootsRhizomedaughterplantRhizomeStolondaughterplantSenescingleafFigure 6. Generalized turfgrass crown.Mature cataphyllElongating cataphyllElongating internodeGrowing pointOld cataphyllAxillary budNodethat refers to the stem and its associated leaves. In the case of grasses, three types of stems exist: the crown, flowering culm and lateral stems (see Figure 5, above right). The crown is the primary stem of grasses; it is from the crown that leaves, flowering culms and other stems originate (see Figure 6, below). Figure 7. Detail of the tip of a Kentucky-bluegrass rhizome.
and the sheath—that are connected by the collar region (see Figure 9, above). The collar region is especially important in identifying turfgrasses. Structures, such as ligules (a membranous or hairy tissue at the base of the blade), auricles (appendages at the margins of the leaf in the collar region) and collars (the back sides of the leaves in the collar region) may vary among the turfgrasses. FLOWERS Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants. They consist of male and/or female parts (see Figure 10, below). Some plants produce separate male and female flowers, and other plants produce flowers with both male and female parts. Some entire plants are either male or female. This can be important for ornamental species. For example, many fruitless trees are merely male plants. The male flower parts consist of the stamen composed of an anther and a filament. The anther holds the pollen grains, which give rise to sperm. The female portion of the flower is the pistil. It is commonly flask shaped, with a swollen basal portion called the ovary connected to a stalk-like style topped off with a swollen portion at the tip called the stigma. In most cases, pollen must be transferred from the anther to the stigma for the pollen tube to germinate and transfer the sperm to the ovary for fertilization to occur and embryo and seed to develop. One exception occurs in Kentucky bluegrass, where an embryo is developed
in the flower from cell division of the vegetative tissue in the ovule. This process is called apomixis and is the reason why most seeds of Kentucky bluegrasses are genetically identical, like a clone. PLANT PHYSIOLOGYWe mention that light energy is the driving force behind growth, and plants accomplish this through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis involves activation of chlorophyll (the green pigment in leaves) molecules by light combined with the assimilation of carbon from the air as carbon dioxide to form glucose sugar (a carbohydrate). Carbohydrates are the actual food plants rely on for growth. Photosynthesis is actually a combination of two separate
but related processes—a light reaction and a dark reaction In the light reaction, the chlorophyll molecule changes to an excited state when exposed to blue or red light. During this light phase of the reaction, water is split into oxygen (which the plant expels), electrons (which are transferred to produce photochemical energy in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate
[ATP]) and hydrogen ions (which are used to create another high-energy molecule called the reduced form or nicotinomide adensine diphosphate [NADPH]). The high-energy bonds in ATP and NADPH are then used to drive the second reaction called the dark reaction. In the dark reaction, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
enters the plant through openings— stomates—in the leaves. In most plants, carbon dioxide immediately reacts
with a five-carbon molecule called ribulose-bisphosphate
(RuBP) to form a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme RuBP carboxylase. Because the first molecule formed after carbon dioxide is fixed is a three-carbon molecule, we call plants with this carbon-fixation system C3 plants. One problem encountered by C3 plants is that the same enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide from the air also can fix oxygen from the air and lead to photorespiration
and a net loss of carbon dioxide. Some plants (primarily monocots) have a different way of fixing carbon dioxide from the air. They get around the problems of photorespiration through their unique plant anatomy and additional enzyme systems for fixing carbon dioxide (see Figure 13, at right). In these species, a three-carbon molecule called phosphoenol pyruvate Figure 8. Cross section of a leaf showing the major tissue types: dermal, vascular and fundamental (ground) tissues.Phloem (vascular)Upper epidermis (dermal)Palisadeparenchyma (ground)SclerenchymafibersXylem (vascular)ChloroplastsCuticleIntercellular air spaceStomateVascular bundleSpongyparenchyma (ground)Lower epidermis(dermal)Bundle sheathImage not found on CD for Figure 9.PetalSepalOvaryReceptacleStamenFilamentAntherStamen detailPistil detailStigmaStyleOvaryOvulePistilFigure 10. Flower parts.
(PEP) reacts with carbon dioxide from the air to form a four-carbon molecule called oxaloacetic acid (OAA)—thus the name C4 plants. The enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-dioxide fixation is called PEP carboxylase, and it only fixes carbon dioxide and not oxygen. Eventually OAA is converted to malic acid, which moves out of the cytoplasm—or mesophyll cells—and into the chloroplasts of tightly packed bundle-sheath cells. There the malate splits off a carbon-dioxide molecule, which is picked up by RuBP carboxylase, the same enzyme that fixes carbon
dioxide from the air in C3 plants. Because the RuBP carboxylase is compartmentalized in bundle-sheath cells and not exposed to oxygen in the air, no photorespiration takes place in C4 plants. ATP and NADPH from the light reaction are then used in the next two reactions. Eventually these phosphorylated
sugars transform into glucose, fructose and other simple sugars.Because photorespiration is more of a problem in warmer temperatures, C4 plants tend to be better adapted to warmer climates, where they evolved the C4 process to avoid photorespiration. Further, species that possess the C4 mechanism and anatomy mostly (though not entirely) are monocots, especially grasses and sedges. Therefore, turfgrass scientists have found it useful to distinguish C4 turfgrasses from C3 turfgrasses with the terms warm-season species (C4 plants) and cool-season species (C3 plants). Virtually all trees and shrubs grown in North American landscapes are C3 plants, so the distinction is not as useful in the ornamental industry, where these terms are not used in this regard. Once simple sugars are produced through photosynthesis,
they can be converted to more complex sugars, such as sucrose, starch, fructosans or structural carbohydrates such as cellulose. In the case of cool-season grasses, the primary storage carbohydrate is fructosan—a long chain (2)NADPH(2) ATPATPCO2H2OStarch(2) Triose phosphate(3C)3(3C)(2) 3-phosphoglycerate RuBP carboxylase enzyme(1) Ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate (5C)Sugar phosphates(2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C, 7C)(1)Hexose phosphate(6C)Ribulose-5-phosphate12Figure 11. The C3 cycle involves three steps: 1) Formation of a CO2 receptor and its incorporation of carbon from CO2 to form two molecules of a three-carbon molecule (thus C3 cycle), 2) production of triose phosphate using the energy from ATP amd NADPH from the light reaction, 3) production of phosphorylated sugars and regeneration of the five-carbon phosphorylated sugar that started the cycle off.WARM-SEASON VS. COOL-SEASON GRASSES WARM-SEASON SPECIES# Optimum temperature: 85° to 105°F# Slow to green in spring# Quick to go dormant in fall because of photodestruction of chlorophyll at temperatures less than 60°F and cold-sensitive enzymes, which fix carbon dioxide from the air# Best growth in summer# Not very cold hardy# No photorespiration and better photo-synthetic efficiency. COOL-SEASON SPECIES# Optimum temperature: 50° to 77°F# Best growth in spring and fall due to cooler temperature and lower photorespiration# Cold hardy# Photorespiration occurs.Air3 phosphoglyerate(3C)Phosphoglycolate(2C)RuBPcarboxylaseenzymeRuBP(5C)O2PhotorespirationFigure 12. Photorespiration. The same enzyme catalyzing the initial reation in the C3 cycle where CO2 is picked up from the air can also pick up oxygen instead. This leads to photorespiration.Oxaloacetate (4C)NADPHPEP carboxylase enzymeMalatePyruvateMalateNADP+CO2C3 CycleCO2BundlesheathcellPyruvateMesophyllcellEpidermisSugarPhosphoenol pyruvateATPFigure 13. Warm-season plants initially pick up CO2 from the air with a different mechanism than cool-season plants. The first product is a four-carbon molecule (thus C4 cycle). The CO2 is then shuttled to another part of the leaf that is protected from the surrounding air. It is here that the CO2 goes through the C3 cycle.Airof fructose with a terminal glucose. Warm-season grasses store sugars as starch. The sugars that the plant stores then are broken down by the plant and used for growth. This process is called respiration. Both plants and animals carry on respiration
and use the same biochemical pathways. Oxygen is required for respiration, and carbon dioxide is expelled (the opposite).
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